Soaring fuel prices; electricity rationing; early snow — it’s enough to send people scurrying for alternative ways to heat their homes and cook their meals.
In some parts of Central Asia, however, “alternative” doesn’t necessarily mean clean burning or eco-friendly. In Uzbekistan, cheap is the operative word, and that means things can get downright, well, earthy.
"Coal is fuel for rich people only," says Eshmurod-Aka, a resident of Uzbekistan’s Qashqadaryo province. "Animal manure is the only fuel we use now."